Alborz mountain range

Alborz mountain range

Alborz mountain range

Alborz mountain range with a length of 950 and a width between 25 to 110 km covers 51,500 square kilometers of Iran. This mountain is formed from the sediments of the first to third geological periods and during movements in the fourth period so the mountain range isn’t only dazzling but also historical.

The highest mountain in the Alborz and Iran mountains is Damavand with 5,610 meters height, which is located in Mazandaran province, near Tehran. The region is absolutely green and has too many rivers, most important ones are Sefid-rud and Jajrood. It’s amazing to know that most of the above 4,000 meters peaks of Iran locate in Alborz mountain range, including Damavand, Alamkuh, Takht-e Suleyman, Kholeno, Sarakchal, Kolun Bastak, Azad kuh, Shah Alborz, Sialan, Dobrar and etc…


Different fronts of Alborz mountain range

From the stratigraphic aspect, Alborz mountain range is divided into three fronts:

  • Eastern: starts from Firoozkuh river and Talar river and continues to Gorgan river. This front is adventurous and virgin.

  • Central Alborz: starts from Sefidrud and extends to Firoozkuh and Talar rivers.

The front is 330 km long and has an average width of 85 km and has two main features compared to the other two parts of Alborz (west and east); first, the highest mountains of the Alborz mountain range are located in this part and the second, the wettest and most rivers are located in this part of Alborz.


  • Western: starts from Astara river and ends in Sefid-rud
    The front is 270 km long and its highest peak called Aghdagh peak (3,303 meters). The width of the western mountain is 30 km in the northern areas, about 60 km in the central parts and about 110 km in the eastern parts, which ends in the Sefid-rud valley.

The narrowest point of western Alborz has 25 km wide and the altitudes in the east are gradually decreasing, often less than 3,500 m.


Flora of Alborz mountain range

There are lots of different plants in the humid and rainy northern part of the eastern Alborz mountain range. But the arid and desert region of Eastern Alborz in the southern part is full of Saline and Arid plants. In the southern part, you can see the growth of plants such as Astragalus shrubs, Turmeric and Hawthorn shrubs with high resistance to water scarcity.
Also, in different heights of Eastern Alborz, there are different plants like Juniper trees with different properties, Wild Apple and Barberry, as well as Almond, Sumac, Alder, Chestnut, Hornbeam, Boxwood and etc. It’s great to know that you can find a variety of edible vegetables with medicinal properties in the region. Among them, we can mention a variety of mountain vegetables such as Artichokes, Rhubarb, various types of mountain Mushrooms, Circus and Onion.


Fauna of Alborz mountain range

Extensive diversity of Iranian wildlife is observed in this region, there are 150 species of mammals such as Brown Bears, Leopards, Wild Cats, Antelopes, Wolves, Boars. If you are a birdwatching fan, Alborz mountain range ca surprise you with special birds such as Eagles, Golden Eagles and Terns.
There are also reptiles such as Alborz Snake, Amphibian and Fish in the area under the protection of Central Alborz, but in Eastern Alborz, there are special mammals such as “Asiatic mouflon”.  Due to the large size of this mountain range, a wide range of butterflies fly in this area. Finally, you can find types of Bats, Wild Rabbits and Reptiles such an abundant species of lizard called “Caucasian agama”, which loves the highlands.


Alborz mountain range climate

Alborz mountain range is one of the cold and mountainous regions, so we definitely expect very cold weather in its winters, also there are lots of snowfall every year. At altitudes above 3,000 meters on the southern slopes of Central Alborz, you will see humid, semi-humid and cold weather. Also, at altitudes of 2,000 or 3,000 meters above sea level, the climate is semi-humid but cold.

If you decide to travel and climb the region, let know the IMT.
With our experience and expertise, you will have a great journey!